|A constitution is a system for governance. It is a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an independent political body. The constitution defines the fundamental political principles, and establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of a government. Most national constitutions also guarantee certain rights to the people. The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950. The Constitution of India covers a total of 395 Articles in 22 parts.
The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advice the President, who shall exercise his functions in accordance to the advice. The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. Every State has a Legislative Assembly. There is a Governor for each state who is appointed by the President. Governor is the Head of the State and the executive power of the State is vested in him.
The Constitution distributes legislative powers between Parliament and State legislatures.